In 1602, the Concord, commanded by Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, learning from members of the earlier voyage Humphrey Gilbert, reached the southern part of Maine, possibly Cape Porpoise, Kennebunkport, and held parley at what is now York. The explored New England, possibly as far south as Martha’s Vinyard. No colony was established yet.
Gosnold, as did the other explorers, called the natives “indians” under the belief that they were the inhabitants of the Indies, which they were seeking through the mythical Northwest Passage (10).
The first European to explore and write about the Piscataqua river was 23 year old English explorer Martin Pring in 1603. Pring is believed to have sailed his ship up the Piscataqua River all the way into Great Bay looking for sassafras, considered to be a plant with great medicinal value. None were found, but he camped at the spot where Portsmouth was to be founded.
in 1605 George Weymouth visited Monhegan, explored the coast, captured 5 natives, brought them back to Europe, and taught them English. Three of them he gave to Sir Ferdinando, by whom one of them was sent back in 1607 with Captain George Popham. Years later, these natives were to have an major impact on the early pioneers of the the New World.
In 1606 Captain Henry Challons left Plymouth, England, but was captured by a Spanish fleet.
The Plymouth and London Companies, named after their respected locations in England, were joint-stock companies founded in 1606 by James I of England. Rich merchants in the London and Plymouth area agreed to finance settlers in return for repayment plus interest out of profit made. Popham was the first attempt at a settlement for the Plymouth Company and Jamestown the first attempt for the London Company.
In 1607, Captain George Popham, with the help of Pring and Captain Challons, tried to make the first ever English colony in New England at the mouth of Sagadahoc, Kennebunk River (Google Maps search for Popham Beach). (18) The story and failure of Popham Colony will not be expored here. The failure did, however, discouraged English attempts at exploration and settlement for roughly 16 years. These companies fizzled out but were replaced by The Council for New England in 1620.
In 1610, John Guy petitioned the King and esablished a colony in Newfoundland called the Cuper’s (Cupids) Cove Colony. This was the first official English colony in Canada and second in North America only behind Jamestown.
Other European Empires were not dormant. In 1604 Frenchman De Monts received a legal monopoly of the fur trade in the new land, from Newfoundland to Philadelphia. De Monts, Samuel de Champlain, and Jeal de Potrincourt left on two ships for Nova Scocia. (18)
They explored the Bay of Fundy, named a now famous island “Isle des Monts Deserts” and La Cadia, later called Acadia, sailed up the Penobscot River. He also explored the modern area of Bangor, possibly to the foot of Oak St, named the St. John River, St. Croix, and also sailed to Cape Cod. (18)
De Mont returned to established a colony at St. Croix. 2/5ths died the first winter. Spring brought provisions but they refused to spend another winter. Before the end of the summer they moved across the bay to Port Royal Nova Scotia. The first military battle between English and French over the territory of New England happened near here, at Sommes’ Point, and did not commence until 150 years later with the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Most or all of the French Settlements were destroyed by the English, who launched from the Virginia Settlement, though Champlain did go on and found Quebec.
John Smith of Jamestown fame, at age 38, started working for Ferdinando Gorges and the Plymouth Company, much to the anger of the Virginia. He sailed to the Maine coast and landed at Monhegan in 1614. Like other exporers, he search for percious minerals and found none. He took a small group and then sailed from Monhegan to Cape Cod while mapping the coast along the way. He named the Isle of Shoals “Smith’s Isles” and cited the area as an excellent spot for a harbor. I think he is cited as the first person to name this area “New England.” (2)
While the majority of these expeditions had a goal turning profits through gold silver, and resources, it’s interesting to note that in Description of New England he envisioned towns along the coast where men and women would live with children. “No landlords to rackle us with high rents, no struggle to get justice in the courts. Here every man may be master of his own little harbor and land. Could I have but meanes to transport a colonie, I would rather live here than anywhere.” (6)
When John Smith reported this to Prince Charles, he said “Call it New England.”
“In 1615 Smith set sail with two ships and sixteen colonists… but was captured and taken to France. Gorges settlement was again delayed.” (9) In 1617, Smith tried returning again with three ships, but were stuck in harbor by contrary winds for so long that his supporters lost heart. (2) For John Smith, that was his last adventure to the New World and he died in London in 1631. (18)
In 1615, Sir Richard Hawkins sailed from England with a comission from the Council of Plymouth to do what service he could for them; but upon his arrival, he found a destructive war prevailing among the naitives, and passed along the coast to Virginia. (18)
Gorges personally paid for a crew to attempt to “winter” in Maine. In 1616 He sent Captain Richard Vines, who became prominent in the early history of Maine, to winter on the Maine Coast at the mouth of the Saco River. Known as the “Swanckadocke River,” there were many native who lived in the area, including Samoset who greeted the Pilgrims in Plymouth.
A civil war broke out in Maine, and those who managed to survive were mostly killed by plagues that decimated New England, killing upwards or 9/10 Natives. Vimes wintered at Leighton’s Point, which they called Winter Harbor still to this day (18). In 1618 Gorges persuaded a few people to spend the winter at Monhegan. (9)
It was one of these men, Thomas Dermer, brought back two natives that had been captured earlier, named Squanto. If you’re reading this, you should be familiar with the Squanto of Plymouth Plantation fame. (9)
Financial loses caused the Plymouth Company to fold, so King James issued a new patent called “Great Patent of New England” in 1620. This patent was made up of 40 noblemen and merchants. (9)
The next settlements that Gorges sent over established a fishing and trading post at Monhegan in 1621. It became important for supplying people in Massachusetts Bay during the hard winter of 1623. This was the first settlement which continued for any considerable length of time within any part of the territory of Maine. (18)
We also find that a settlement was commenced at Pemaquid in 1625, which became the most populated settlements on the entire coast of New England, numbering 500 people. It continued to increase without interruption until it’s destruction during King Phillips War in 1675.